Open Access Case Report

Giant Mixed Vesical Calculus in a Patient in North Central, Nigeria: A Case Report

Saleh A. Longwap, Ahmed M. Rabiu, Cecilia N. Edeh, Daniel O. Aina, Ayuba Affi, David M. Manshor, Emmanuel Innocent, Henry Embu, Mercy Isichei, Ali I. Shugaba

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 96-99
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i730416

A 30-year old male Business man presented at the accident and emergency unit of Abnira Medical Centre in Jos city on account of inability to pass urine for over fifteen hours. There was concomitant excruciating lower abdominal pain and swelling that is tender to touch. A positive history of generalized weakness, fatigue, nausea, heamaturia was given. However, no fever, vomiting, headache nor history of fainting attacks. On examination, he was afebrile, acyanosed with associated tachycardia (pulse rate 121bpm) and tachypnea (respiratory rate of 27c/min).He was oriented in place, person and time with no focal neurological deficit. There were no cardiac and other respiratory signs picked on examination. His abdomen was soft and non-tender, with normal bowel sounds. However, there was renal angle tenderness. Biochemical investigations done on presentation showed normal sodium, potassium, chlorite, and bicarbonate. He has some evidence of dehydration and pre-renal azotemia (increased creatinine, urea and uric acid).His liver function tests, lipase, thyroid function test, phosphate, magnesium and albumin-corrected calcium were all normal.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Indian Food Based on Machine learning Classification Models

Sasmita Kumari Nayak, Mamata Beura, Mohammed Siddique, Siba Prasad Mishra

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i730407

For human life, Food is highly necessary and essential for human to live the life. The objective of the current study is to characterise, classify and compare the food consumption patterns of many Indian food diets such as non-vegetarian and vegetarian. Given data about different Indian dishes, we try to predict here the dish is vegetarian or not. To get the best predictive model, this study is conducted with the comparison of Decision Tree, K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Random Forest algorithms. In this study, the concept and implementation of all these four models be made for prediction of Indian food. For training and testing the models, Indian food dataset is used that contains, in total 255 records to fit with all these four models. In short, the classification and prediction of Decision tree and KNN model provides less performance than the other models used here. However, the Random Forest model was generally more accurate than SVM, KNN and Decision Tree model, which have got from the simulation. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Optimal Control Strategies for Preventing Computer Virus Infection and Reduce Program Files Damage with Other Symptoms

Titus Ifeanyi Chinebu, Ikechukwu Valentine Udegbe, Edmund Onwubiko Ezennorom

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 8-29
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i730408

Program files damage and other computer virus symptoms has become a very threatening issue to computer performance. This paper considered an  model with incidence of infected and program files damaged computers and saturated incidence of vaccination and treatment function. Two control functions have been used; one for vaccinating the susceptible computer population and the other for the treatment of the program files damaged computer population. The Pontryagin’s Maximum Principle has been used to characterize the optimal control whose numerical results show the positive impact of the two controls used for controlling the infection dynamics of computer virus. Actually the intention of this study is to minimize the number of infected and program files damaged computer systems and at the same time minimize the cost associated to the controls. Efficiency analysis is also studied to determine the best control strategy among vaccination and treatment. Numerical simulations were carried out in this model to demonstrate the analytical results and it was revealed that combination of vaccination and treatment is the most successful way to minimize the incidence of program files damage. 

Open Access Original Research Article

The Role of Vitamin C in the Energy Supply of Cells Hypothetical Structure for Energy Transformation

János Hunyady

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 30-44
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i730409

The present paper represents a hypothetical structure, the structure for energy transformation (SET), which might be responsible for the proper energy transformation steps leading to the continuous production of H+ and ATP in living cells. We predict that the electron flow is realized through the electron flow device (EFD). We suppose that there are several versions of the SET. Two of them are described below [Structure of Aerobic Glycolysis (SET-AG) and Structure of Oxidative Phosphorylation (SET-OP). The hypothesis is based on the atom properties of the protonated adenine molecule and the docking computations of molecular mechanics involved, suggesting that two ascorbate molecules may occupy the empty NADPH pocket, preferably binding to the adenine binding site. We hypothesize that the adenine originates from uric acid (UA), resulting in an ATP-UA-ADP-ATP-UA cycle. It would also mean that UA is one of the oxygen sources in aerobic glycolysis.

We also suppose that the EFD contains the well-known molecules of the Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD) and Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide (FAD) supplemented with two additional UA-originated adenine molecules, two L-ascorbic acids, and two D-glucose molecules. Based on all this, we surmise that a tetra adenine octo phosphate ring (TAR) exists, in which the UA originated adenine molecules form a ring. The molecules are linked to each other through the N7-C2 and C8-N1 atoms of the adenine molecules by H2PO4e- molecules. The four N10 atoms of the adenine molecules bind one flavin, one nicotinamide, and two L-ascorbic acid molecules. Six D-glucose molecules complete one Unit of the structure. Both Fe-S and cytochrome clusters, as well as dehydrogenases, ensure the continuous operation of the Unit. The synchronized function of the three-stoke, three twin-cylinder engine results in continuous energy, ATP, and H+ production. Eukaryotic cells are equipped with the SET-AG and the SET-OP; thus, they can live in an anoxic and oxygenized environment.

It is hoped that the SET concept developed here will help the better understanding the way of cancer treatment’s action regarding glucose deprivation or Vitamin C.

Open Access Original Research Article

Graduate Students’ Perspectives on Challenges Encountered in Research Work in Higher Education: The Kenya Experience

Anne Syomwene

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 45-52
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i730410

Research contributes significantly in every country’s national and economic development. In addition, research is fundamental in post graduate progammes in Higher Education (CUE, 2014). This paper is a report of a study that was carried out in Kenya in the year 2020 on graduate students’ perspectives on challenges encountered in research work in higher education. The study adopted a Mixed Methods approach and a survey research design. The study was guided by the systems theory by Bertalanffy (1968) cited by Heylighen and Joslyn (1992). A sample of 10 PhD students and 15 M.ED students from a public university in Kenya was selected through purposive and convenience sampling method. Only the students that had submitted their thesis for examination participated in the study. Since the students were not on campus at the time of the study, only those within reach took part in the study. Data was collected from September to November 2020 using students’ questionnaires that comprised of both closed ended and open ended questions. Data was analyzed through descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. The findings revealed that graduate students had challenges pertaining problem identification and statement, data analysis, identification and discussion of the research gap, statement of research objectives/questions, and time management. Nevertheless, the students overcame the challenges through wide reading, and consultations with experts. The study recommended strengthening of teaching and supervision of graduate students, enhancement of graduate students’ support mechanisms and faculty development in higher education. The results of this study provide insight on challenges affecting graduate students in research work. The findings inform universities on teaching of graduate students and research supervision.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Hot Air, Microwave and Freeze Drying on Drying Characteristics of Button Mushroom Slices (Agaricus bisporus)

Mitali Madhumita, Gitanjali Behera, Ashutosh Nanda, Pabitra Kumar Das, Suvendu Pradhan, Anuradha Sarkar

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 53-61
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i730411

Aims: Button mushrooms, rich in vitamins and minerals, are very highly perishable and therefore, it has been very necessary to develop a value-added product. The aim of the research work is to study the effects of blanching on air-dried, microwave oven dried, and freeze dried mushroom samples and also to study the characterization of dried samples.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Agricultural Engineering, School of Agricultural and Bio-Engineering, Centurion University of Technology & Management, between February 2021 to June 2021

Methodology: Three different drying techniques like hot air, microwave, and freeze drying were taken to study the drying effect on dried mushroom slices. The quality parameters like dehydration and rehydration potential, density, ascorbic acid, color, and organoleptic properties were studied.

Results: The rehydration ratio of freeze dried mushroom samples were high having low density than the other dried samples. Less color deterioration was also found in freeze drying. Moreover, ascorbic acid, color, texture, and overall acceptability of sensory analysis were found to be maximum in freeze dried samples. The freeze dried product was found to be attractive in flavour and texture and got highest score in sensory analysis.

Conclusion: The freeze drying can be an effective drying method to dry fresh mushroom compared to hot air and microwave drying.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of Nutrient Values and Heavy Metals Content of Corchorus olitorius Collected from Farm Land (Post Service) and Dumpsite (Oko Fili) In Lagos, Nigeria.

A. A. Adu, O. J. Aderinola, N. R. Sanni

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 62-70
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i730412

Africa is blessed with great diversity of plant resources that play major role in the continent's food, socio-economic and cultural development. These traditional leafy vegetables help to improve the nutritional status of populations and generate significant income in both rural and urban areas.Hence, this study investigated the nutrient contents and level of heavy metals in Corchorus olitorius collected from dumpsite (Oko fili in Alimosho Local Government Area) and farmland (Post Service in Ojo Local Government Area) using a standard procedure and t-test analysis. The results showed the presence of amino acids(aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, glycine, histidine, Arginine, threonine, alanine, proline, tyrosine, valine, methionine, cysteine, iso-leucine, leucine, phenylalanine and lysine) in C. olitorius from both sites, however no significant (p>0.05) difference exists between the mean of all the amino acids taken from both sites. Values of metals recorded in dumpsites were higher than that from farmland. However, only calcium (Ca), iron(Fe), potassium(K), magnesium(Mg), sodium(Na), phosphorus(P), and zinc (Zn) had higher significant differences in values for both the soil and C. olitorius. The respective values of these metals (mg/100g) in C. olitorius at dumpsite and farmland are: Ca (985.3±310.8, 633.8±190.1), Fe (141.4±18.314, 5.415±0.742), K (112.200±51.477, 32.200±13.717), Mg (308.050±121.552, 107.050±3.889), Na(37.995±16.497, 25.015±5.550), P(305.635±257.860, 137.500±39.739) and Zn(18.235±13.103, 4.380±1.810). Potassium/sodium ratio (K/Na) for C. olitorius at both sites is comparable to recommended value of 1.00. In conclusion, all the values of metals (except Na in soil and K in plant) are within WHO/FAO maximum recommended limits. Therefore, C. olitorius examined in this study is safe for consumption while the metals in both farmland and dumpsite are considered to be less   concentrated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between Intelligence Quotient, Academic Motivation and Academic Performance in Secondary School Students

Ekenedilichukwu Ilo, Chibuike Onyejesi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 71-79
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i730413

Background: Students’ academic performance is affected by personal factors such as students’ effort, previous schooling, parent’s educational background, self motivation and intelligence.

Aim: To determine how academic motivation and intelligence quotient uniquely contribute to differences in students' academic performance.

Study Design: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study.

Methodology: The study was carried out on 405 selected students from both private and public secondary schools in Enugu-East Local Government Area, study participants aged 9 through 15 years which is within the eligible ages for the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices. Academic scores in three subjects were obtained from the schools. Intelligence quotient was measured using Raven Standard Progressive Matrices and Academic motivation was measured using the Academic motivation scale modified for use among secondary school students. A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain data on age, gender and parent’s educational level.

Results: Approximately 50% of study participants had an IQ 100 and above and 7.5% were intellectually superior scoring above the 95th percentile. IQ and academic motivation significantly predicted academic performance accounting for 29.9% of variance in academic performance(p<0.001).

Conclusion: Academic motivation plays a role in students’ success and academic performance. IQ alone does not account for the differences in academic performance among students.

Open Access Original Research Article

Image Steganography Using Pixel Value Differencing (PVD) Technique Based on Firefly Algorithm

Oluwaseun M. Alade, Elizabeth A. Amusan, Oluyinka T. Adedeji, Oluwaseun O. Alo

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 80-86
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i730414

Steganography deals with the ways of hiding communicated data in such a way that it remains confidential. Finding best position inside cover image to embed text message, maintaining a reasonable trade-off between security, robustness, higher bit embedding rate and imperceptibility are some of the challenges of steganography system. Hence, this paper presents firefly algorithm for finding best positions inside cover image in order to embed text message into cover image using Pixel Value Differencing (PVD) technique. Four different cover image was used. Experimental result showed the cover image with selected location using firefly algorithm as well as the stego image using PVD technique. The stego image was evaluated using Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Mean square Error (MSE).  Firefly Algorithm with PVD technique produced a promising result for image steganography.

Open Access Review Article

Concept, Prospects and Challenges of Internet Pharmacy to Practice of Pharmaceutical Care: A Review

Sunday Olajide Awofisayo, Imoh Emmanuel Udoh, Jessica Imeh Awofisayo, Felix Njoku, Matthew Ikhuoria Arhewoh

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 87-95
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i730415

Internet pharmacy has been the focus of heightened interest over the past 10 years. The unfolding and increasing trend and availability of online health information and drug sourcing are becoming of palpable concerns as the internet is known to be characteristically porous in terms of legislature and regulatory control. This prevalence and pattern of use of the internet in this regard alongside knowledge and attitude of users are examined. The readiness of regulatory bodies and operational legislations in some countries to checkmate illegal and uncontrolled ethical drug sourcing is similarly highlighted. The advantages of online drug sourcing that may increasingly fuel the internet market are considered. Finally, necessary upgrade of existing physical drug outlets to tackle possible spurious and illegal virtual pharmacies and strategies to practice of pharmaceutical care based on online ideologies are also reviewed.