Open Access Short communication

Hazardous Health Impact of Virtual Education during COVID-19

Abhisek Mishra, Byomakesh Debata, Pooja Patnaik, Bhawani Prasad Bag, Iswar Baitharu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 86-89
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i830428

The rapid spread of COVID-19 compelled the infected nations to close down their educational institutions to check the rigor of spread. In such context, to provide uninterrupted education to the students, virtual education through internet was widely adopted. This paper throws a light on how the students engaged in virtual education are exposed to various unexpected health perils due to the use of internet and smartphones. Moreover, this paper suggests taking a holistic approach through the introduction of “Yoga” in the course curriculum to avoid the unexpected health hazards.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Fish Production of Different Size of Fish Farm Groups in Prayagraj District, Uttar Pradesh

Ayushi Verma, . Ramchandra

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i830417

Background: Uttar Pradesh is India’s most populous state having 1662 lakh population as per 2001 census, against 16.2% of India’s population with enough fisheries resources in the form of community ponds, tanks with dominance of rivers and man-made reservoirs. Five blocks (Koraon, Shankargarh, Karchhana, Handia, and Jasara) from Prayagraj were taken for study during the period of 1st December,2020 - 31st May,2021.

Aim: To examine the fish production of different size of fish farm groups.

Methodology: A study was conducted in the Prayagraj district of Uttar Pradesh. A total of 80 fish farmers were selected randomly from five blocks (Koraon, Shankargarh, Karchhana, Handia, and Jasara) and a pre-structured questionnaire was used to collect the data from the fish farmers. The fish farmers were classified into three categories on the basis of the size of pond area viz. small farmer: up to 0.125 ha., medium farmer: 0.125 ha to 0.250 ha., and large farmer: above 0.250 ha.

Result: The Study showed that, various independent variables of production like fingerlings, manures, feeds, and labor were being analysed in accordance with their respective sample of fish ponds and it is concluded that all of the independent variables affected the fish production differently. Using Cobb Douglas production function, 73% variation in gross value return from explanatory variables was observed in first size-group. Effect of Improved variety fingerlings was negative and coefficient of elasticity for human labor was positive but both impacted fish production significantly. A variation of 41.6% in gross value return was observed from second size group. Human labor impacted fish production significantly and its coefficient of elasticity was positive. Further, 45.7% of variation in gross value return was in third size group.  Human labor and manure both had a significant effect, and their coefficients of elasticity was positive and negative respectively. Coefficient of multiple determination  was 76.6% indicating variation in gross value return from independent variable from all farm’s situations. Pond area and human labor variables had positive coefficient of elasticity but for improved fingerlings it was negative and all effected fish production significantly.

Conclusion: It was concluded that there is a need to further engage the fish farmers in the fish production practices and provide them with sufficient inputs of production like fingerlings, manures, feeds, and labor so that the farmers can boost the fish production in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Brownian Motion and its Mathematical Applications in Medicine

Valdecir de Godoy Borges, RJ Lato Sensu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 7-12
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i830418

Brownian motion is small particles suspended in a liquid tend to move in pseudorandom or stochastic paths through the liquid, even if the liquid in question is inert. By Einstein's theories for Brownian motion referring to the 1905 works, equilibrium relations and viscous friction, osmotic pressure reaching the diffusion coefficient of Brownian particles. In the fluid medium, we will address the deviation (diffusion equation and basically the relationship between the mean square deviation of the particle position and the fluid temperature, the higher the temperature, the greater the mean square deviation, that is, directly proportional to the constant of the diffusion). The importance of this study is the movement of particles and molecules in the fluid medium, whether these molecules are lipids, proteins, we know that viruses and bacteria are having a certain movement in the organism and its systems, we will tend to study their movement within vessels and between fluids body, with two densities and particular conditions, knowing the likely displacement, we will know therapeutic interventions that are probably more effective. The aim of this work is to demonstrate through mathematical applications the Brownian motion.

Open Access Original Research Article

Integrated Management of Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) Infesting Solanum tuberosum L. in Storage in MT Elgon Region, Kenya

Oroti Chimwani Bonface, Millicent F. Owuor Ndonga, Francis N. Muyekho

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 13-22
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i830419

The production of potato, a second major staple food crop in Kenya is being constrained by an insect pest potato tuber moth (PTM), Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). The present study investigated two Integrated Pest Management techniques which would reduce (PTM) population in potato storage, four potato cultivars and two botanical quantities were used in storage in Mt Elgon region of Western Kenya. The insecticidal efficacy of Lantana camara L. and Azandiracta indica A. Jusss (Sapindales: Meliaceae) and in storage at Kapsokwony and Chemoremo villages were investigated in the present study years. In each of the studied site the experiment was laid down in randomized block Design (RBD) in a split plot arrangement at room temperature of 27 ± 2.  Four cultivars (Tigoni, Sherekea, Mayan gold and Asante) were the first factor and treatments (L. camara and A. indica leaves powder and control) as the second factor, each of which was repeated three. The room was partitioned at the center into two (3m x3m) using a PVC sheet to separate two portions for the two botanical and to prevented insect migration. We set up 4 caring bags per cultivar per botanical. We placed 2 kg PTM-free tubers per each cultivar in one caring bag hence 4 caring bags/split/ cultivar  and 16 caring bags / block, therefore the total number of caring bags  was (4 x 4)= 16 bags per cultivar hence (16 x 4) = 64 caring bags/ botanical. The splits had four 2kg caring bags hence (2x4) = 8 kg per split and (8x16) = 32kg/cultivar hence N =128kg. The caring bags were covered with a layer of the botanicals at a rate 100g, 150g, 200g, and untreated control respectively. Twenty (10♀ + 10♂) newly emerged moths were introduced inside the storage. We assessed for week one number of tubers infested and tunnels of PTM larvae, at week two for number of tubers infested and tunneling length. Week three number of tubers infested, tunneling length in tubers and number of second generation larva. Analysis was done by comparison of the means and there mean differences using R software. Results indicated use of 200g/ 2kg of the botanicals significantly reduced number of PTM larvae. Lantana camara was the most effective insecticide followed by Azadrachta indica compared to the controlled tubers. Thus the use of 200g of L. camara and Tigoni cultivar may be promising components of IPM strategies for reducing P. operculella population in potato fields and storage.

Open Access Original Research Article

α-Glucosidase Inhibition and Glycemic Index of Chocolate Incorporated with Selected Spices

Dhanavath Srinu, D. Baskaran

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 23-28
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i830420

The present study was carried out to evaluate the α-glucosidase, α-amylase, sucrase inhibition and glycemic index of chocolate prepared by incorporating selected spices i.e., fenugreek, black cumin, coriander and cinnamon in the form of powders at different equal levels of substitution at 1%, 1.5% and 2%. The spices incorporated chocolate showed α-glucosidase inhibition in the range of 27.36 to 48.28% at 50 to 150µl concentration. The glycemic index of developed chocolate was found to be lower than the control chocolate, which was attributed to the incorporation of spices. The results of the present study revealed that the chocolate prepared by incorporating different spices is low glycemic in nature.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Co-fermentation of Cassava and African Yam Bean on some Compositional and Sensory Properties of Pupuru

M. O. Adesola, J. A Adejuyitan, O.O. Idowu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 29-35
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i830421

Aim: Consumption of pupuru (a cassava based food) is on the increasing trend in most parts of Nigeria, hence the need to improve the nutrients with under-utilised legume, African yam bean (AYB). The aim of this work was to co-ferment cassava and AYB at varying proportion and processed to pupuru flour.

Study Design: Randomised Block Design was used in this study to assess the influence of different substitution levels of AYB on the properties of pupuru flour and the meal prepared from it.

Methodology: The cassava roots were washed, peeled and grated to mash while the AYB was boiled, decorticated and milled into slurry. The AYB slurry was co-fermented with the cassava mash at different substitution level (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40%) and processed to pupuru flour. The 0% served as control (100% cassava). Samples of pupuru flour were evaluated for proximate composition, mineral and anti-nutritional contents. Meal (stiff dough) prepared from the flour was subjected to sensory evaluation. Data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS software package.

Results: The protein content ranged from 2.9 to 38.68%. The bulk density, swelling capacity, water absorption capacity ranged from 0.72% - 0.86%, 245.56% – 351.84%, and 191.01% - 255.36% respectively. The oxalate, tannin, phytate, and cyanide contents were in the range of 80.00-175.00 mg/100g, 24.55-73.70 mg/100g, 1.34–3.85 mg/100g, and 0.29-0.58 mg/100g respectively. The sensory attributes of pupuru meal indicated a significant difference (p < 0.05) among the samples, with 100% cassava pupuru been the most preferred in terms of taste and general acceptability.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Reading Habits of Primary School Children in Lhuentse District

Karma Tshering

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 36-43
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i830422

The issue of reading, especially book reading has received much attention from different quarters in recent times because of the downward trend it is experiencing, especially among the young generation. The researcher realized that student's reading culture particularly developing reading habits were observed to be very poor. Students neither acquired skills of reading nor develop habits of reading. These experiences and observations have motivated me to carry out research to enhance reading skills in reading and promote reading habits for children.

This research is to study on Reading Habits of Primary School children under the Lhuentse District. Reading habit and its impact on children of the respondents have been analyzed to find out how reading habit is affected by various elements. Based on the findings of a questionnaires-based survey, the paper also attempts to put forward some suggestions for improving the reading habits of the children.

Open Access Original Research Article

DFT Calculations and Total Antioxidant Capacity Studies of some Substituted Monodentate Salicylaldimines

Demehin, Abidemi Iyewumi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 44-54
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i830423

Three substituted monodentate salicylaldimines namely 5-chloro-N-[(2- methoxy) phenyl] salicylaldimine [I],  5-chloro-N-[(4-chloro)phenyl]salicylaldimine [II] and 5-chloro-N-[(2-methyl-5-chloro)phenyl] salicylaldimine [III] were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV, 1H and 13C NMR. Theoretical calculations were also performed on the optimized structures of the compounds. The IR, NMR and UV spectra of the compounds were calculated and the results compared with the corresponding experimental spectra to augment the structural elucidation. The calculated IR, NMR and UV values were in agreement with the experimental results. The total antioxidant capacities of the compounds were determined by phosphomolybdenum assay.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design, Construction and Performance Evaluation of a Dual-Powered Cooker

A. A. Adegbola, A. D. Ogunsola, R. O. Olanrewaju, O. O. Olaleye

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 65-85
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i830427

A dual-powered cooker is a combination of components that makes possible the use of alternative heat sources. Due to the irregular power supply common in developing countries, as well as the growing high cost of hydrocarbon fuel sources, the need arises for the development of a dual energy source that uses both electricity and gas for heating and cooking. The aim of this research work is to design, construct and carry out a performance evaluation of a dual-powered cooker.

The materials for the research work were locally sourced and selected based on suitability in reference to the design requirement of the cooker. The cooker consists of two divisions, each fitted with a burner operating on distinct energy sources, electricity and gas. Within the electric burner is a heating element that generates and dissipates heat across a hotplate. On the other hand, cooking gas is supplied to the burner located at the other segment of the cooker via a threaded pipe connection to a gas cylinder, secured unto a control mechanism that allows the burning rate to be varied progressively and continuously. The temperature of the water was allowed to synergize with the ambient temperature of the room before testing.

Several important findings can be drawn from this assessment. The gas cooker has a  higher overall thermal efficiency between (57.50% [without lid] - 62.84% [with lid]) as opposed to the efficiency of its electric counterpart, which falls between (29.78% [without lid] - 39.12% [with lid]).

The dual-powered cooker was successfully designed, constructed and evaluated. The gas cooker has a higher efficiency than the electric cooker. Primarily, the gas cooker is at an advantage as it does not need to preheat or rely on power from an electric source subject to fluctuation in voltage before cooking, unlike the electric cooker; therefore, making it better at a wider range of cooking operations.It combines the best of gas and electric cookers. Gas hobs that are quick to heat up and easy to control, plus electric ovens with more accurate heat settings and multiple features.

Open Access Review Article

Constraints and Way Forward for Boosting Income from Dairy Farming in India: A Review

Ramdev Yadav, Sushil Kumar Yadav, Amit Kumar Singh, Pooja Singh

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 55-64
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i830424

For a sustainable livelihood model of farming under Indian conditions, dairying becomes an inevitable part along with crop production. Dairy farming has been a continuous source of income to the farmers which help them in their socioeconomic development. Increased quantity and quality of milk always fetches good returns to the farmers. Hence, it becomes the priority of almost all the farmers to extract more and more milk from the animals which may sometimes pushes them into faulty husbandry practices which ultimately lead to loss of income and loss of health of animals. Nonetheless, dairy production in India has boosted many folds as shown by increased livestock population and production scenario in the country. However, under Indian conditions, for enhancing the income from dairy farming certain constraints have to be layout and correspondingly firm solutions have to be made. Constraints such as poor availability of high producing Germplasm, rapidly decreasing availability of feed and fodder resources, poor husbandry practices, reproductive and other health problems among several other problems hinder the income obtained from dairy farming to the farmers. In addition to the much needed solutions of such constraints, there needs for the reforming government policies for overall development of dairying in India. This article discusses on such probable constraints and their solutions in concise yet informative way so that wholesome development of income through dairy industry may be achieved.