Open Access Original Research Article

Investigating the Relationship between the Production Characteristics and Quality of Concrete Produced in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria

Uche Felix Ikechukwu, Hyginus Emeka Opara

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i1030442

Quality of concrete explains considerably the state of affairs involved in the production of concrete in a particular area. The antecedents of the production process to a greater extent therefore have a way of predicting the expected quality of a product. Hence, the degree of relationship between the quality of concrete and its production characteristics is determined in the study. Field work adopted in the study comprises activity sampling and ex post facto experimental designs. These two different research designs were applied to obtain data for performance assessment of activities involved in the production procedures and laboratory tests of concrete produced at various sites in the study area respectively. The corresponding data obtained in the field work are in ordinance and ratio scales of measurement. Regression analysis was used to establish a casual relationship between the two variables - performance level of the production characteristics (x) and the compressive strength (y) of the concrete at various sites in the study area. A model relationship of simple regression analysis for the dependent and independent variables is established. Finding reveals that the better the ranking of sites in compliance with the standard practice of production characteristics, the higher the compressive strength property of the concrete produced on site; hence the linear relationship. The coefficient of determination shows that 93% of changes in the strength property of concrete are caused by the production characteristics. Although the highest value of compressive strength obtained as 10.80 N/mm2 goes with the best state of affairs of the production characteristics in the study, it does not meet the minimum stipulated specification for the strength.  Hence, other critical factors such as; aggregate type, and mix design should be considered for desired quality of concrete in the study area. Besides, enforcement of uniformity in production process as standard practice by all the firms should as a matter of urgency be implemented formally by the government in the state for improved quality of concrete in general.

Open Access Original Research Article

Water Supply System Description and Risk Assessment in Brikama Water Treatment Plant System, West Coast Region, Gambia: WHO Water Safety Plan Based Approach

Amadou Barrow, Baboucarr Corr, M. Mustapha, Rex A. Kuye, M. K. C. Sridhar

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 7-19
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i1030444

Background: Better water quality, improved sanitation and sound water resource management will improve public health and economic development in low-income countries. Water safety plan-based risk assessment and risk management from catchment to consumers are the modern and efficient approaches to safe drinking water supply established by World Health Organization. Thus, this paper aimed to assess risk from catchment level to consumers in the community of Brikama.

Methods: This study report assessments of risk or hazards from catchment to consumers in Brikama Water Treatment Plant (BWTP), West Coast Region, The Gambia. The various means of data collection used include water quality monitoring, visual field inspection and questionnaire survey to explore data on where the water supply system goes wrong from catchment to consumers, so as to provide an improvement plan.

Results: Overall, the day-to-day administration of services at BWTP was very impressive. The fencing of all the 17 boreholes at catchment sites has drastically reduced the risk of contamination including treatment systems and distribution lines. There are less risks observed and constant monitoring of the system was ensured. However, at the consumer end, there are some risks with poor practices associated with water handling, storage and hygiene measures at the household level. Some still use some unclean 20-liter containers to store water and indiscriminately kept drinking cups on the floor and unclean surfaces, and 50% lacked WASH knowledge related to water treatment, such as boiling and filtration at households. The overall perception of water storage, sanitation and hygiene practices could be rated moderately good.

Conclusion: The overall findings of this study have shown tremendous achievement in the government's commitment to providing potable water to the people in Brikama Local Government Area. WASH education in the study area is recommended to avoid waterborne disease infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Planting Material on Physiological Parameters and Cassava Mosaic Incidence in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.)

S. Nanthakumar, K. Krithika, M. Prabhu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 20-25
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i1030445

An investigation was carried out to assess the effect of planting materials on physiological parameters, cassava mosaic incidence and yield of Cassava varieties viz. H-226 and CO.2 at the Department of Vegetable crops, Horticultural College and Research Institute, TNAU, Coimbatore during September 2010 to June 2011. The experiments were laid out in Factorial Randomized Block Design with four treatments and three replications in two varieties. The results revealed that the tissue culture plants were found be the best in virtue of its high leaf area index, net assimilation rate, dry matter content, tuber yield (26.33 t ha-1) and least incidence of cassava mosaic virus. Among the varieties, CO.2 showed less incidence of CMD. The tissue cultured plants may be recommended to farmers to reduce mosaic disease incidence and get maximum yield in cassava.

Open Access Original Research Article

Natural Radioactivity in Various Water Tasters Using y-Ray Measurement

I. Hossain, N. M. Yussuf, M. A. Saeed, M. O. Alzanbaqi, H. Wagiran

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 26-30
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i1030446

This paper has explained the contamination of natural radionuclides in various water testers using gamma ray measurement which is very significant as part of health scrutiny programs to progress the ecological knowledge. Natural radioactivity was determined in five groups of water samples (rain, mine, tap, drinking and mineral) from different places at Johor, Malaysia by means of gamma-ray spectrometry tool. The annual cumulative effective doses were estimated 6.05 mSv /yr for rain, 9.49 mSv/ yr for mine, 6.39 mSv /yr for tap, 5.67 mSv /yr for drinking, and 6.01 mSv/yr for mineral water. Among the five samples, mine water gave the highest value in annual effective dose measurement. The measured data are compared with the reported value. The activity concentrations of five water samples provided that bottled drinking water was the lowest than other water samples. This research is useful to provide some information to the public about the amount of radionuclide content uranium, thorium and potassium that present in water.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Water Quality of Major Water Sources for Domestic Use in Shelleng Town, Shelleng LGA Adamawa State, Nigeria

Haruna Kindikah, Anbomutuniya Titus, Ishaya Kindikah, Cletus Ganni, Innocent Joseph

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 31-37
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i1030447

This paper presents the empirical assessment of major water sources used for domestic purposes in Shelleng town. Shelleng LGA Adamawa State, Nigeria located at Latitude 90 53’ 5” N and Longitude 120 0’ 32” E. Portable domestic water supply is requisite for good health, but access to a safe and sustainable water supply has been a challenge in many developing countries for several decades. Water free from pathogenic agents, harmful chemical substances, and pleasant to taste is good for healthy living. For many centuries, farming, fishing, and rearing of animals have been the major occupation of the people of the land. Aside from the naturally dissolved minerals in groundwater, the physicochemical properties of water will be changed due to contaminants such as pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizer in addition to the use of farm tools for both commercial and subsistence farming. The objective of the research is to examine the physicochemical properties of the water samples in shelleng for domestics’ usage; where about 90% of humans and animals patronize the same water source in the area. In many cases such activities and the habit of open defecation, dumping of domestic and automobile waste such as battery and fuel along undesignated areas makes the water bodies both surfaces and groundwater susceptible to contamination. This suggests that a water treatment plant must be installed within Shelleng municipal to ensure safe and potable water for domestic uses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Novel Brazilians Rhizosphere Soil Trichoderma spp. to Select Effective Biocontrol Agents against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on Beans

Magno Rodrigues de Carvalho Filho, Lincon Rafael da Silva, Paulo Henrique Pereira Costa Muniz, Daniel Diego Costa Carvalho, Sueli Corrêa Marques de Mello

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 38-52
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i1030448

Trichoderma spp. are fungus considered one of the most attractive for biological control due to its different mechanisms action against plant pathogens and action to promote plant growth and productivity. The molecular characterization of this group of antagonists is of great importance for conducting studies in the area of biodiversity and for identifying and selecting the possibility of their use in biological control. Objective of this work was to identify 29 Trichoderma isolates based on molecular profiles and phylogenetic analysis sequence the rRNA gene ITS1-5-8S-ITS2, as well as to select the isolates that presented the highest levels of antagonism against S. sclerotiorum and that promoted growth in common bean using experiments in vitro and in a greenhouse. Among the sequences obtained, a total of five different Trichoderma species were identified: T. asperellum, T. harzianum, T. koningiopsis, T. brevicompactum and T. tomentosum. The Trichoderma isolates used showed a variation in the mycelial inhibition of the pathogen by non-volatile metabolites between 84.11% to 100%. Regarding the dry weight of the plants treated with Trichoderma and the pathogen, it was observed that ten Trichoderma isolates promoted plant growth in relation to the control with a variation of 2.6% to 34%. T. asperellum CEN201 proved to be the best candidate to participate in a broader selection that would include field tests for the biological control of S. sclerotiorum and growth promotion in common bean, as in the laboratory and at home of vegetation showed great success in inhibiting the pathogen and promoting plant growth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Drug Repurposing: In Silico Modeling of Mucor Mycosis

Bharat Kwatra, Barshana Bhattacharya, Tanvi Khokhawat, Aaron Raphael Jes, Monish Bhati, Suniti Ahuja

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 53-61
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i1030449

The globe has recently been fighting a battle with black fungus, also known as Mucormycosis, and with no immediate treatments available, the disease's devastation is spreading at an alarming rate. A large number of researchers are still looking for a promising new drug that could aid the medical care system in this fight. A docking-based screening employing quantum mechanical scoring of a library is shown, built from approved drugs and compounds that Ellagic acid, Hesperetin, Capsaicin, Concanavalin, Cinnamic acid, Quercetin, Citronellal, Limonene, Progoitrin, Sinigrin, Allicin, Curcumin, Indole, Resveratrol, Strigol, D-limonene, Benzoic acid, Panaxydol, Kaempferol and Berberine with Protein with PDB id 6VCT could display antifungal activity against Mucormycosis. Clearly, these compounds should be further evaluated in experimental assays and clinical trials to confirm their actual activity against the disease. We hope that these findings may contribute to the rational drug design against Mucormycosis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Tobacco Harm Reduction Model Using SAST and ECM

. Kholil, Hifni Alifahmi, Ario Bimo

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 62-69
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i1030450

Cigarettes is related with culture and people's behavior.In almost all countries it has become a serious problem because of its negative impact on health, but the number of smokers increasing year by year. In fact, the community has considered it as a lifestyle, social intimacy (social behaviour), and some even have made it part of certain traditional ceremonies, So behavioral change is an important thing to stop smoking or reduce the danger of negative impact of smoking. The main problem is how to change community behavioral to reduce negative impact of cigaret?

This research aimed to identify and analyze the factors that caused a person to be active smoker, and what is the most appropriate strategy to reduce the negative impacts of smoking according to the real condition. The method used was the combination of inductive and deductive approaches. Data collection via questionnare and experts discussion. The analysis used were SAST and ECM . The analysis results showed there are three main factors to stop smoking : health, economic reasons, and family encouragement. While the best strategy to reduce negative impact of cigarette is government affirmative policy and building hexa helix collaboration involving business actors, academics, government, society, market and the media.

Open Access Original Research Article

Compressor Profile Optimization Based on Hybrid Intelligent Algorithm

Huadong Yang

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 70-78
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i1030452

In order to improve the working characteristics of the scroll compressor, according to the scroll profile of the compressor, the energy efficiency ratio (EER) of the scroll compressor is taken as the objective function, and the number of scroll turns N and knots are determined based on the genetic annealing algorithm. The distance p, the height of the scroll body h, and the thickness of the scroll profile t are optimized. In the optimized solution set, three sets of optimized profile and initial profile are selected for theoretical calculation of thermodynamic characteristics and volume characteristics, and the specific influence of scroll compressor profile parameters on compressor characteristics is explored in detail, and compared with the unoptimized scroll. The initial parameters of the rotary compressor are compared with the theoretical performance. The results show that the pitch p has a significant effect on the energy efficiency ratio and discharge volume of the scroll compressor, and the number of scroll turns N has a significant effect on the characteristic of suction volume. Three kinds of optimized scroll profile parameters S2, S3, S4 are selected in the optimal solution set. Compared with the initial value S1, the working characteristics are improved. The energy efficiency ratio was increased by 38.10%, 42.58%, and 50.26%; the suction volume was increased by 66.1%, 82.3%, and 73.9%; the exhaust volume was increased by 21.1%, 29.6%, and 50%; the internal volume ratio was increased by 36.4%. 40.9%, 27.3%. It is proved that the use of genetic annealing algorithm achieves the purpose of improving the compressor's operating characteristics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Farmers’ Perception and Access to Mechanization in Maize Production in Kamwenge District, Western Uganda

Natumanya Hillary, R. Kalibwani, E. Ssemakula

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 79-92
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i1030453

Farm mechanization has been an important aspect in bringing out a significant improvement in agricultural productivity. In Uganda, mechanization acts as a backbone of the present agricultural systems across the country. Despite its recognized role towards agriculture, farmers still perceive its use and need differently mainly in terms of hire costs, traditional culture, size and topography of land, availability and social status. The study was examining farmers’ perceptions towards mechanization in maize production in Kanara sub-county in Kamwenge district. The objectives were to: determine farmers’ perceptions on the usefulness of mechanization on maize production, determine the relationship between socio-economic characteristics and farmers’ perception of mechanization, identify the factors limiting the use of agricultural mechanization among maize farmers, and to establish how best agricultural mechanization could be promoted for sustainable production.

The study employed a cross-sectional survey design engaging both qualitative and quantitative approaches for data collection and analysis. Information was gathered from 362 respondents using questionnaire and interviews. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20 to generate both descriptive and inferential statistics. Farmers’ perceived mechanization to perform more work than humans, reliable, time saving, and accessible and high work accomplishment rate. Farmer perceptions were influenced by socio-economic characteristics for example; age, land size, gender, income level/status, employment status, type of land owned and availability of labor.

The study identified the challenges associated with the use of agricultural mechanization such as; less access to mechanization information significant at 5%, land ownership type at 0.03 (5%), household size 0.03 (5%), access to credit 0.04 (5%), years in maize farming at 0.05 (5%), availability and access to implements at 0.09, high costs of hire at 0.02 (1%), slope of the land at 0.07, and fuel costs at 0.00 (1%). These would be solved by extending credit services to the farmers, community capacity building, awareness creation, group formation, promoting mechanization as part of production, establishing contract farming schemes, increasing investment in agricultural mechanization, training and education and forming public–private partnerships. The study concluded that farmers had varying perceptions about agricultural mechanization which depended mainly on socio-economic factors. It recommended the need to promote rural-urban migration as this could create more land and encourage farmers to adopt mechanization since it may create more land reserve.