Open Access Original Research Article

Seasonal Changes of Length-Weight Relationships and Condition Factor of Three Fish Species from the Tanoe-Ehy Swamp Forest (Côte d’Ivoire)

Yao Aristide Konan, Attoube Ida Monney, Yomi Junior Simmou, Tidiani Kone

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i1130454

Aims: The Tanoe-Ehy swamp forest (TESF) is a freshwater swampy area characterized by seasonal variation of environmental parameters and fish diversity. So, the aim of this study was to analyze seasonal variations of growth parameters and condition factors of the three abundant species.

Methodology: Specimens were collected by using gill nets and fyke nets, measured and weighed. Length-weight relationship (LWR), Fulton’s condition (KF) and relative condition (KR) factors were analyzed from Standard Length (SL) and body weight (BW).

Results: The Standard Length of Clarias buettikoferi, Thysochromis ansorgii and Parachana obscura varied between 9.50 and 29.30 cm, 4.60 and 11.50 cm, 10.70 and 29.30 cm, respectively. The growth type of population was allometric negative for C. buettikoferi and P. obscura and isometric for T. ansorgii. In terms of seasonal variation, C. buettikoferi females and P. obscura specimens exhibited isometric growth in dry seasons (DS) against a negative allometric growth in flooded seasons (FS). In contrast, female and combined sex specimens of T. ansorgii showed positive allometric growth in DS and isometric growth type in FS. KR varied between 0.76 and 2.02 and was significantly higher in FS than in DS, indicating a state of well-being during flooded seasons in the 3 species.

Conclusion: There was a significant relationship between length with weight and both condition factor for the three species. This study provided the first data about fish body measurements in the TESF and concluded that LWRs and condition factors of the three fish species were strongly influenced by seasonal variations in hydrological conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Quality Analysis of Wheat Bran Enriched Herbal Cookies

V. K. Jadhav, S. V. Ghodke, P. D. Shere, R. S. Agrawal

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 13-24
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i1130455

Wheat bran, byproduct of the wheat milling has extensive applications in the food industry attributing to its high dietary fiber (polysaccharides), protein and minerals content. Dietary fiber assist in gastrointestinal health maintenance and diseases risk reduction (Diverticular disease, heart disease, cancer and diabetes). Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) contains numerous bioactive compounds (Caryophyllin, ursolic acid, rosmarinic acid, thymol,methyl chavicol, citral, carvacrol, and caryophyllene) imparting health benefits. Tulsi being rich in antioxidants advised for fighting free radicals and excess oxidative damage. In developing countries like India, with growing urbanization healthy bakery products demand is progressively rising in both urban and rural area. Hence, sincere efforts were undertaken to develop functionally and nutritionally enhanced cookies by incorporating wheat bran and tulsi powder. The cookies were developed by replacing refined wheat flour with varying level of wheat bran (20-35%). Cookies formulated with 30% wheat bran was observed to be sensorially best sample against other levels. Hence this sample was further selected for incorporation of tulsi powder (1-3%) and subjected to physical, chemical and sensory analysis. Sensory score indicated 1% tulsi powder incorporated cookie sample was highly acceptable against rest of the samples. The wheat bran (30%) and tulsi powder (1%) incorporation increased the dietary fiber (42.43%) and protein content (27.69%) without affecting on sensory parameters. The enhanced total phenol content (63.66%) and antioxidant activity (16.30%) was emerged out as one of the achievements of present investigation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preclinical Immuno-recognition and Neutralization of Lethality Assessment of a New Polyvalent Antivenom, VINS Snake Venom Antiserum – African IHS®, against Envenomation of Ten African Viperid and Elapid Snakes

Djameh, Georgina I., Nyarko, Samuel, Tetteh-Tsifoanya, Mark, Marfo, Frances M., Adjei, Samuel, Blay, Emmanuel A., Anang, Abraham K., Ayi, Irene

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 25-43
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i1130456

Snakebite envenomation is a major health concern in developing countries causing significant mortality and morbidity. With over 1.2 million cases annually caused by medically important snake species belonging to the two families Viperidae (Echis spp. and Bitis spp.) and Elapidae (Naja spp. and Dendroaspis spp.). Several antivenoms are being produced and distributed to western sub-Saharan Africa for treatment of envenomation with the absence of preclinical efficacy studies. The present study evaluated the preclinical efficacy of venoms from Echis leucogaster, Echis ocellatus, Bitis arietans, Bitis gabonica, Naja haje, Naja melanoleuca, Naja nigricollis, Dendroaspis jamesoni, Dendroaspis polylepis and Dendroaspis viridis against a polyvalent Snake Venom Antiserum - African IHS (lyophilised), manufactured by VINS Bioproducts Limited (Telangana, India). Our in vitro results showed that, the SVA- AIHS contains antibodies that are capable of recognizing and binding majority of protein components representative of all eight major protein families of venoms of the snake species tested by double immunodiffusion assay and confirmed by western blot. The venom antiserum exhibited high neutralization efficacy against all the viperid and elapid snake species venoms in in vivo studies and confirmed the manufacturer’s recommended neutralization capacity. This is clear evidence that the VINS polyvalent SVA-AIHS batch tested has strong neutralizing capacity and will be useful in treating envenoming by most African viperid and some elapid snake species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of the Philippine Government’s Responses to COVID-19 Pandemic

Christopher J. Cocal

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 44-53
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i1130457

Background: The COVID–19 pandemic is a health issue and concern that posed domino effects along with health, economy, transportation, and education, among others. In response to the pandemic, governments and institutions worldwide have implemented various measures to slow down the spread of the virus. In the Philippines, both the national and local governments have responded to the COVID-19 pandemic with declarations of emergency, community quarantine, closure of schools and public meeting places, and other restrictions intended to slow the progression of the virus.

Aims: The study assessed the effectiveness of the government's responses to the COVID–19 pandemic as perceived by professionals.

Place and Duration of the Study: Pangasinan State University between March 2020 to May 2020.

Methodology: The descriptive-survey research design was employed to a total of 522 professionals from Northern Luzon, Philippines. Data was gathered for one week after the 60 days implementation of enhanced community quarantine/lockdown using google form.

Results: The results of the study showed that the government's responses to the COVID 19 pandemic was perceived effective (grand mean = 3.53); and most effective on the implementation of physical isolation (overall mean = 3.60; DR - effective) but least effective in the implementation of medical responses (overall mean = 3.37; DR – moderately effective). Further, 64.56% believed that the President's decisiveness to address the pandemic was the number factor contributing to the effectiveness of the government's responses. On the other hand, the general public's lack of discipline was seen as the number one factor contributing to the failure of the government's responses to the pandemic, as perceived by 77.39% of the respondents.

Conclusion: Despite the pandemic's continuous progression, the people believed that the national and local governments have effectively responded to the pandemic.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seed Germination of Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell.) Morong. (Fabaceae) under Different Temperatures and Drying Method

Natália Marinho Silva Crisóstomo, Lorraynne Gabrielly Vieira dos Santos, Luan Danilo Ferreira de Andrade Melo, João Luciano de Andrade Melo Junior, Larice Bruna Ferreira Soares, Reinaldo de Alencar Paes, Vanuze Costa de Oliveira, Lívia Francyne Gomes Chaves, Jaqueline Figueredo de Oliveira Costa, Erika Elias da Silva

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 54-59
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i1130458

Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell.) Morong a tree commonly known as anglerfish, monkey ear and timbaúva. Due to its wood quality, this tree species is widely used in naval and civil constructions, toys and furniture frames, and can also be used for urban afforestation and restoration of degraded areas. The objective of this work was to standardize the best temperature conditions for conducting the germination tests of E. contortisiliquum seeds under laboratory conditions, considering the fact that the seeds come from coastal tropical Brazil, and to evaluate the desiccation tolerance. The experiments were carried out at the Plant Propagation Laboratory of the Agricultural Engineering and Sciences Campus (CECA) of the Federal University of Alagoas (UFAL), located in the municipality of Rio Largo, Alagoas, Brazil. The design of the experiment was fully randomized, with four repetitions of 25 seeds per treatment. In test I: The newly harvested seeds were subjected to constant temperatures of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40ºC and alternating temperatures of 20-30ºC, with an eight-hour photoperiod, simulated by four fluorescent lamps 20W daylight type. In trial II: The seeds were divided into two lots. The first was the control (initial moisture content). The second was subjected to slow drying on silica gel. A constant temperature of 30ºC is recommended for the germination and vigor test of E. contortisiliquum seeds. The critical means water content for seeds of this species is below 5%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Interest, Coping Mechanisms, and Learning Achievements of Single Mothers in the Alternative Learning System

Nieva G. Bermudo, Roleen B. Moleño

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 60-84
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i1130459

This study determined the interests, coping mechanisms and learning achievements of single mothers in Alternative Learning System. The study employed descriptive-correlational research design utilizing four-parts research instrument.  There were 115 ALS learners enumerated as respondents of the study.  Descriptive statistics and Pearson R correlation analysis were utilized.  Many of the single mothers dropped out of school when they were in their grade seven to ten level of education because they experience difficulty in terms of their economic status but they were interested to continue and finish their study in the basic education level. They adjust to stressful events they encounter; struggle with their understanding in the prerequisite and fundamental knowledge and/ or skills in their communication skills in Filipino and English, and in Mathematics and Science. Further, number of siblings is the best predictor common to the achievements of single mothers in Communication Skills in Filipino and English, Expanding One’s World Views, and overall learning achievement but not in the area of Mathematics and Science and Sustainable Use of Resources and Productivity to which the last grade attended by the single mothers is the best predictor. More importantly, the single mothers enrolled in ALS were motivated to continue and finish their study despite the difficulties they experienced. They hurdle all the odd circumstances that distract their academic journey purposive of improving their current well-being. It was recommended mainly that intensive interventions should be implemented to address the factors such as pregnancy and parenthood, boredom, academic challenges, lack of parental support, and money that generally causes the youths to drop from attending school.

Open Access Original Research Article

Area of Specialization and Teaching Performance of the Secondary Science Teachers in Negros Oriental, Philippines

Roger S. Malahay

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 97-103
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i1130461

The K to 12 reform and the new Philippine Professional Standard for Teachers have changed the landscape of teacher quality requirements in the Philippines. It is in this context that this study is deemed necessary to determine the area of specialization and the teaching performance of the public secondary school Science teachers in terms of science content knowledge with this new educational schemeThere were 46 respondents in this study from the Department of Education-Guihulngan City Division, Negros Oriental Philippines. Findings reveal that the science teachers’ area of specialization can be categorized as Bachelor of Secondary Education (BSED) major in General Science, BS in Scientific Field (Nursing, Biology, and Chemical Engineering) and the Non-Science Field (English, TLE, Social Science). It indicates that majority of them lack the needed educational qualification to teach all science disciplines in the K12 curriculum. Furthermore, it shows that the BSED-General Science teachers with outstanding rating perform better than the B.S. in Scientific Field group and the non-science teachers with very good and good performance ratings respectively. It is an indication of lack of science content knowledge among the non-science teachers. Furthermore, the result discloses that the area of specialization is a determining factor in their teaching performance. It revealed that among the three groups of respondents, the general science teachers appear to be the most efficient.  They are followed by those in the B.S. in Scientific field, and the non-science teachers came out to be the lowest. Hence, it clearly suggests that the BSED-General Science teachers are the most qualified to teach science since they have the sufficient educational preparations. The B.S.in Scientific Field teachers need to undergo more training and enroll in graduate studies to master all the science areas in the K12 curriculum. While the non-science teachers are discouraged to handle science subjects since they lack the necessary educational preparation to teach science.

Open Access Review Article

Social Factors Encumbering Land Title Registration in Tanzania: The Case of Mtwivila and Mkimbizi Wards, Iringa Municipality

Abenance L. Kamomonga

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 85-96
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2021/v27i1130460

The aim of this study was to explore social factors impeding land title registration (LTR) in Mtwivila and Mkimbizi Wards, Iringa Municipality. Using the mixed research design, this study employed cross-sectional research to collect both quantitative and qualitative data. Questionnaire and interview methods were used to collect primary data. Qualitative data were presented in selected themes and verbatim by interview respondents. Quantitative data were presented in tables, frequencies, percentages and figures then analysed descriptively. The study findings indicated limited awareness among Plot Owners Without Title Deed (POWTD) regarding: the inherent benefits of title deeds, probate and administration, plot allocation procedures, land title registration procedures and the perils of not executing property transfer. This study recommends that allied land professionals in Iringa Municipal council (IMC), Ministry of Lands, Housing and Human Settlement Development (MLHHSD) and other stakeholders should create public awareness, as an immediate intervention measure regarding land title registration.