Cereal Commerce: An Indian Trade Scenario at HS 4 Digit Level

Priyanka, V. *

Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, UAS, GKVK, Bengaluru, 560065, India.

K. B. Vedamurthy

Department of Dairy Business Management, Dairy Science College, KVAFSU, Hebbal Campus, Bengaluru, 560065, India.

Yashavantagouda, S. Patil.

Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, UAS, GKVK, Bengaluru, 560065, India.


Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, UAS, GKVK, Bengaluru, 560065, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


India's cereal trade landscape is a complex interplay of production, export, and import dynamics, reflecting both domestic priorities and global market demands. Despite historical export restrictions on staples like wheat and rice, recent policy shifts have positioned India as a pivotal player in global cereal commerce. The present study aims to understand the Indian cereal production and trade significance at HS 4-digit level. Notably the results indicated that, India's cereal production has exhibited steady growth, with a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 0.044 per cent over the years. This growth trajectory, coupled with fluctuations in India's share of world cereal production (hovering around 10-11 %), underscores the country's consistent contribution to the global market. In terms of export composition, rice stands out as the dominant commodity, comprising a significant 76.42 per cent share of the total exported value, followed by wheat and maize. On the import front, India shows a strategic reliance on specific cereals like barley, oats, and maize, which collectively constitute over 90 per cent of the imported cereal value. This import pattern reflects targeted procurement strategies based on market needs and domestic consumption patterns. Examining trade partnerships, the United States emerges as a key exporter, while China features prominently as a significant importer of cereals. Other notable exporters include Argentina, Brazil, and Australia, contributing to a diverse distribution of cereal trade globally. The results imply that understanding product groups in specific can enhance the trade performance of any country. This diversity in trade partnerships highlights India's adaptability and its ability to navigate complex international markets. Overall, India's cereal trade dynamics demonstrate a blend of strategic production growth, export prioritization, and targeted import strategies, showcasing its pivotal role and significance in the global cereals market.

Keywords: HS, global markets, compound annual growth rate, trade dynamics, domestic needs

How to Cite

Priyanka, V., Vedamurthy, K. B., S. Patil. , Y., & Naresh. (2024). Cereal Commerce: An Indian Trade Scenario at HS 4 Digit Level. Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, 30(6), 385–391. https://doi.org/10.9734/jsrr/2024/v30i62053


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