Open Access Short Research Article

Economic Valuation of Recreation at Lengwe National Park in Malawi

Walison Fixon , PhiriInnocent Pangapanga

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/26631

Aim: We estimate the recreation value of Lengwe National Park (LNP) in Malawi using the travel cost method (TCM). The TCM is one of the techniques used for estimating economic values of environmental goods and services that do not command a market price such as National Parks.

Study Design: The study adopts a purposive sampling procedure.

Place and Duration: Lengwe National Park, Chikwawa in Southern Malawi. The study was implemented between September and December 2015.

Research Methodology: The study administers about 670 questionnaires to recreationists. The data were subjected to a Travel Cost Analysis to assess the socio-economic factors that affect visitation at Lengwe National Park and to estimate its recreation value.

Results: The study finds an opposite but anticipated relationship between total travelling costs and individual visits per year. On the other hand, we discover direct relationship between individuals` income and visits per year. In this study, an individual average round trip costs approximately MWK92, 440. The individual consumer surplus (recreation value) per visit is MWK81, 037 and the total annual recreation value for Lengwe National Park is MWK94, 003,241.

Conclusion: We conclude that the Travel Cost Method can be used to evaluate recreation sites in Malawi. We find travel costs and income as socioeconomic factors affecting visitation at Lengwe National Park and the total annual recreation value of the park is estimated to be MWK94, 003,241. These results may be used in the management of the park and related areas. We further recommend that management should re-introduce more game and protect the animals to enable the park withstand competition for visitors with other protected areas within Malawi. The study further highlights the need to set entry fees based on the number of days the clients stay in the national park.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Finite Sample Performance of Modified Adaptive Kernel Estimators for Probability Density Function

Serpil Cula , Serdar Demir , Oniz Toktamis

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/27756

It is well-known that the most popular probability density estimator is kernel density estimator in literature. Adaptive kernel density estimators are generally preferred for data with long tailed densities. In this paper, the adaptive kernel estimators for probability density function are studied. A modified adaptive kernel estimator is investigated. For finite sample performance comparisons, the root mean squared errors of the fixed and the adaptive kernel estimations are computed for simulated samples from various density distributions. The simulation results show that the modified adaptive kernel density estimators have better performance than the classical adaptive kernel density estimator.

Open Access Original Research Article

Test Cases Generation for Object-oriented Software from Decision Slicing of UML Activity Diagram

Wasiur Rhmann , Vipin Saxena

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/26872

Software testing is an integral part of the software development life cycle. Design of good test cases is a key challenge in software testing. Test cases can be designed from different artifacts like requirements, design and software code. In Software engineering, different UML diagrams are used for designing and analysis of the software systems. The main contribution of this work is to propose a novel technique of test cases generation from UML activity diagram using an iterative method. Iterative methods are used in numerical analysis for generation of solution of equation iteratively. In the present work a test cases generation technique from decision slicing of UML activity diagram is presented. Decision slices for each decision nodes are derived from the Activity Flow Graph (AFG) of the activity diagram. Test cases are generated for each activity path of the activity flow graph. Decision nodes at each activity path are used to generate system of equations and these equations are solved by an iterative method to generate test data for each activity path. A case study of ticket purchasing from ticket vending machine using UML activity diagram is presented.

Open Access Original Research Article

Strategies for Counselling against Election Violence in Anambra State, Nigeria

Chinyelu Nwokolo , Ada Anyamene , Uzoekwe Helen

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/26070

Background: The problem of election violence in Nigeria particularly in Anambra State has been a source of worry because of its attendant consequences on children, youths and the society at large. The youths are induced to threaten or unleash violence as a means to achieve electoral and political success. This study investigated the counselling strategies for curbing election violence in Anambra State, Nigeria.

Methods: Three research questions -what are the strategies for counselling against election violence?, what are the strategies for counselling against election violence as perceived by male and female counsellors? and what are the strategies for counselling against election violence as perceived by rural and urban based counsellors? guided the study. The population comprised 258 guidance counsellors in all the government owned secondary schools in Anambra State. The whole population served as the sample. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. Data was collected using 15 item questionnaire developed by the researchers. The data was analysed using mean and standard deviation.

Findings: Findings showed that counselling is an effective way of curbing election violence. Result showed that orientation, information, enlightenment programmes among others is strategies for curbing election violence. Election violence is a social vice that is giving the entire nation sleepless nights. Based on the findings of the study, the following strategies such as effective counselling to youths parents and political leaders at various levels of government could go a long way in curbing election violence in Anambra State, Nigeria.

Recommendations: Based on the findings of the study, some recommendations were made including that counsellors should organize lectures, seminars and workshops for youths, parents and politicians alike. Also re-orientation programmes should be organized for youths by counsellors in conjunction with the government on values, ethnics and morals as the general decadence in the body polity has caught up with the youths.

Conclusion: Election violence is a social vice that is giving the entire nation sleepless nights. Based on the findings of the study, the following strategies such as effective counselling to youths, parents and political leaders at various levels of governance could go a long way in curbing election violence in Anambra State, Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Smoking in Nigeria: Estimates from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) 2012

Folashayo Adeniji , Eniola Bamgboye , Corné van Walbeek

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/27278

Aim: Tobacco remains the leading cause of preventable deaths, causing about 6 million deaths globally every year. Despite the widely known health effects of smoking, the prevalence of tobacco use is gradually increasing in developing countries including Nigeria. This study was carried out to provide a clear understanding of the patterns, social distribution and predictors of smoking in Nigeria.

Study Design: Data on tobacco use and the socio-demographic as well as smoking related characteristics of ever smoked, never smoked and current smokers were obtained from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). Global Adult Tobacco Survey is a cross-sectional, nationally representative population based survey implemented for Nigeria in 2012. The data comprises of responses from adults of 15 years of age and above. A cross-sectional stratified multi-stage cluster sampling was adopted for the survey with a sample of 11,107 systematically selected households.

Methodology: The analysis included generation of frequencies, proportions and means for relevant independent variables. Bivariate analysis using chi square test was done as well as multivariate logistic regression analysis after considering the clustering effect. Unadjusted odds ratios were also obtained. All statistical test were set at 5% level of significance.

Results: The overall smoking prevalence was 4.4%, in which 78.1% are daily smokers. The mean age of initiation of daily smoking was 20.5±5.9years. There was a significant association between age, gender, education, occupation, religion, region, location and smoking status. (p <0.001). The odds of cigarette smoking was highest within age ranges 25-34(OR 2.68, 95% CI: 1.6-4.3) and 45-54 (2.43, 95%CI: 1.4-4.0) respectively, relative to 15-24 year olds. Gender was found to be an independent predictor of the probability of whether an adult smokes or not as women were about 30 times less likely to smoke than men (OR 0.03; 95% CI: 0.02-0.06).

Conclusion: Public health in Nigeria will benefit from measures that will aim at ensuring that the use of tobacco is kept low. More efforts should be made to prevent tobacco industry’s strategies to expand the market of their products in the country.

Open Access Original Research Article

Valorization of Biodiesel Production: Focus on Crude Glycerine Refining/Purification

O. S. Muniru , C. S. Ezeanyanaso , T. K. Fagbemigun , E. U. Akubueze , A. O. Oyewole , O. J. Okunola , G. Asieba , A. O. Shifatu , C. C. Igwe , G. N. Elemo

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/27982

Biodiesel production in Nigeria is gaining more level of awareness but the cost of production is still on the high side. This is largely due to the cost of raw materials, mainly vegetable oil or fat. Fortunately, a very efficient way to reduce this cost and increase profitability is the purification of the crude glycerol by-product of the biodiesel production process. Hence, this research was carried out using crude glycerol from biodiesel production of Neem Seed Oil (N. S. O.) and Waste Cooking Vegetable Oil (W.C.V.O) and it also provides a cost effective, domesticated process technology for the purification of the crude glycerol from any biodiesel production facility.

Neutralization and phase separation was carried out using dilute phosphoric acid, followed by separation of the glycerol rich layer, concentration and methanol recovery, glycerol extraction using iso-propanol (IPA) and then colour removal with activated charcoal. The effect of pH during neutralization on the purification level was investigated using a pH range of 3.0 – 7.0 at steps of 0.5. The optimal pH was found to be about 6.5 for both crude glycerol sources. Also, the IPA: glycerol ratio was varied using 1:1, 1:2, 2:1, 3:1 and extraction was found to be optimum at 2:1. (v/v) to achieve average glycerol purity level of about 97%.

Both the refined glycerol and crude glycerol samples were analyzed using the Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (G. C. M. S.). Other analyses were also extensively carried out and all conformed to quality standard.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Affecting the Adaptability of Building Information Modelling (BIM) for Construction Projects in Anambra State Nigeria

F. O. Ezeokoli , P. U. Okoye , E. Nkeleme

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/26563

Aim: This study examined the factors affecting the adaptability of Building Information Modelling by the building construction professionals in Anambra State Nigeria.

Study Design: It was a survey research where questionnaires were distributed to core professionals in the Building Construction Industry.

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was conducted in Anambra State, Nigeria for a period of 3 months.

Methodology: A total of 84 questionnaires were administered to the respondents whereas 56copies were completed, returned and found useful, thus, giving a response rate of 67%. Data garnered were analysed and presented using mean score, percentages, relative importance index (RII), bar charts and pie charts. 

Results: The study found that the level of BIM awareness among building construction professionals in the study area was 93%. The study revealed that 54% of the BIM users in the study area are beginner and 23% are moderate users. Also, the study revealed that 69% of the construction professionals are not yet prepared to embrace BIM technologies in the study area.  

Conclusion: The study concluded that the level of readiness of Building Construction Industry in the study area towards embracing BIM is still poor. Therefore, it was recommended that institutional framework should be strengthened such that it can drive BIM adoption process in a systematic and participatory manner. The study further recommended that proper capacity building of the construction professionals on BIM should be pursed religiously in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dynamic Effect of Government Expenditure on Nigeria Economic Growth: Long Run Propensity and Short Run Adjustments

Adigwe Patrick Kanayo , Anyanwu Felicia Akujinma, Udeh Francis

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/27586

The nexus between government expenditure and economic growth remains a controversial issue in public finance literature as scholars have divergent opinion backed by empirical findings. In this study, we examine the long run relationship between government expenditure and economic growth, short run and long run adjustment and the effect of government expenditure on Nigeria’s economic growth for a period of forty five (45) years from 1970 to 2015. Prior to model estimation, we subjected the model to diagnostic of Heteroskedasticity, Serial Correlation LM, Ramsey RESET and Multicollinearity tests. The stationarity test was performed to ensure that the variables were not encumbered by stationarity flaws linked with most time series data. Johansen co-integration was applied in testing the long run relationship, short run and long run adjustments by vector error correction model and effect of government expenditure on economic growth by granger causality effect test. The result of the long run test reveals the existence of a long run relationship between government expenditure and economic growth in Nigeria, VECM analysis suggests that Nigeria would achieve a steady level of growth if preference is giving to capital expenditure over recurrent expenditure, and the granger causality effect result envisages that recurrent and capital expenditure which are the two components of government expenditure have significant effect on Nigeria’s economic growth thus, supporting the Adolph Wagner’s hypothesis on public expenditure. Findings also indicates that government application of fiscal policy via increasing expenditure as the sole tool for economic growth as currently the case will not spur economic growth in the long run. The practical implication of this study research result is that the federal government of Nigeria should embark more on capital/development projects as it will in the long run spur economic growth and development. The current situation where recurrent expenditure takes over 85% of the yearly budget should be discontinued with so as to achieve our vision to be rank in the league of world top economies.