Open Access Minireview Article

An Overview of Pre-ignition of Hydrogen Engine

Yang Luo, Chuanhao Zhao

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i1030317

Hydrogen engine has attracted much attention due to its high combustion efficiency, low hydrogen concentration requirement, low environmental pollution and fuel regeneration. But the key issue pre-ignition has hindered the development of hydrogen engines. In order to have a more in-depth understanding of pre-ignition, this paper reviews the mechanism of pre-ignition, the relationship between the nature of hydrogen and pre-ignition , the key factors affecting pre-ignition and the research status of pre-ignition, analyzes the development trend of hydrogen engine and provides a new perspective for the study of inhibiting pre-ignition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on the Effect of Shading on Performance of Leafy Vegetables

Zannatul Firdaus Binte Habib, Md. Rashedul Hassan, Nazmun Naher, Abdul Halim

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 8-24
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i1030318

A field experiment was conducted at Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Sher-e-Bangla, Dhaka, Bangladesh during the period from March, 2019 to June, 2019. The aim of the study was to select best summer leafy vegetables, suitable for holding under different shade condition in agroforestry systems. The selected vegetables were also grown in control i.e., open field condition or in full sunlight. The vegetables were Indian Spinach, Stem Amaranth, and Red Amaranth and treatments were T0= planting summer leafy vegetables under full sunlight, T1= planting summer leafy vegetables under 50% shade condition (reduced light intensity) and T2 = planting summer leafy vegetables under 75% shade condition (reduced light intensity). The experiment was laid out following single factor RCBD design. Three replications were used for each treatment for each crop. During the study period maximum light intensity reduction was recorded in Red Amaranth (48.28%) in 75% shade condition and minimum light intensity was reduced in case of Indian Spinach (26.14%) under 50% shade condition. The reduced light intensity had substantial effects on various growth parameters of the summer leafy vegetables. From the experiment, significant result was observed in all morphological characteristics for all leafy vegetables under reduced light intensity. Apart from this, highest yield was found in Stem Amaranth (22.33 ton/ha) and Indian Spinach (13.83 ton/ha) in 75% shade condition. Highest yield of Indian Spinach (19.40 ton/ha), Stem Amaranth (27.25 ton/ha) and Red Amaranth (11.30 ton/ha) was recorded under full sunlight. Considering shade condition, Stem Amaranth and Indian Spinach were best suitable for growing in Agroforestry systems.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Annealing, Acid Hydrolysis and Branching Enzyme on Dioscorea schimperiana Starch Technological and Functional Properties

Djeukeu Asongni William, Dongho Dongmo Fabrice Fabien, Leng Marlyse Solange, Gouado inocent

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 25-37
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i1030319

Aims: To assess its technological aptitude and functional properties, Dioscorea schimperiana starch was submitted to various treatment of technological importance and its properties was evaluated.

Methodology: For this aim, the starch extracted from Dioscorea schimperiana tubers and was submitted to annealing, acid hydrolysis and to a branching enzyme (1, 4-α-glucan branching enzyme). Afterward, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gelatinization profile, physicochemical and functional properties of the samples was recorded.

Results: FTIR spectra show the introduction and withdrawal of bond in modified samples. The thermal properties (DSC) of starch were not affected by annealing (AS) and enzymatic treatment (EBS). No peak temperature and gelatinization profile were observed for acid hydrolyzed samples (AHS) on Rapid Visco Analyzer. Annealing and enzyme treatment lead to an increase of the starch peak viscosity of while reducing its breakdown. The functional properties of the starch such as swelling capacity, least swelling concentration and water binding capacity were increased by annealing. Acid hydrolysis significantly increases in vitro digestibility of D. schimperiana starch while no significant change was observed after annealing and enzymatic modification, thus presenting it as particularly resistant to digestion.

Conclusion: This study suggests that annealing can be considered for the production of D. schimperiana modified starch with high technological and functional properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Formulation, Binder and Compaction Pressure of Rice Husk-Bagasse Briquettes on Thermal and Physical Properties

Kerich K. Daniel, Zachary O. Siagi, Julius O. Ogola

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 38-53
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i1030320

Aims: This study investigated the use of agro-wastes for the production of briquettes. It was carried out to investigate the effect of formulation, binder and compaction pressure of rice husk-Bagasse briquettes on thermal and physical properties.

Study Design: The experimental design for this study was 6x5x2 Randomized Complete Block Design

Place and Duration of the Study: Rice husks and bagasse were collected from Lake Basin Development Authority’s rice mill and Kibos sugar and Allied company respectively. The binders were sourced locally in Kisumu. The study was conducted between March 2019 and February 2020. The fabrication and laboratory analysis were carried out in the engineering and laboratory departments of Kenya Industrial Research and Development institute, Kisumu.

Methodology: The experimental design for this study was 6x5x2 Randomized Complete Block Design. This study involved six formulations ratios (0:100, 20:80, 40:60, 60:40, 80:20, 100:0), five compaction pressure levels (108kPa, 180kPa, 253kPa, 325kPa, 397kPa) and two binders (clay, cassava) They were arranged in Randomize Complete Block Design with three replications per experiment.

Results: The briquettes bulk density was in the range of 849 to 1001 kg.m−3, while the calorific value ranged from 5.541 kcal/g for 100% Rice husk clay binder to 7.345 kcal/g 20% Rice Husk cassava binder. Briquettes with blend ratio of 40-60% Rice Husk took longer time to burn. Briquette formulations with clay binder had burning rates ranging from 0.28 g/min to 0.15 g/min while with cassava binder from 0.52 g/min to 0.37 g/min. The ignition time of the briquettes ranged from 62 sec to 95 sec with cassava binder and 110 sec to 191sec with clay binder. The shatter index ranged from 0.94 to 0.99 with cassava and 0.9 to 0.98 with clay binder.

Conclusion: Higher compaction pressures and use of cassava binder produced stronger briquettes with higher calorific values. Briquettes with higher percentage of bagasse had low ignition time and low bulk densities. The bulk densities and ignition time showed significant rise with increase in the compaction pressure but inversely affected the burning rate. The binder used significantly affected both the thermal and physical properties of all the formulations.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Factor Analytic Investigation of Electronic Word-of-Mouth towards Fast Food Industry in Sri Lanka

Saraniya Devendra

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 64-69
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i1030322

In modern marketing, the Fast Food Industry has experienced lots of changes. These changes have influenced both industries and the nature of the rivalry. Consequently, it is not shocking that these bread winners have been enforced in a puzzling situation to concentrate on their customers instead of positive word of mouth communication. One of the best ways that restaurants can be differentiated from others and accomplish competitive advantage is using positive word of mouth. Consequently, this research is contributed to the vital element that is influencing on Electronic Word-of-Mouth (EWOM) in selective Fast Food Restaurants. The data were collected from a convenience sample of 200 customers in Colombo Divisional Secretariat Division, Sri Lanka. The respondents provided the data utilizing a close-ended questionnaire. Exploratory Factor Analysis has been used to analyze the data and to draw the findings. From the factor analysis, it has been identified that four factors, namely Encouragement, In-depth explanation, Differentiation and Contacts, are the primary influencers. These four factors have combined variance of 55.411% of the decision regarding the adoption of Electronic Word-of-Mouth by Fast Food Restaurants to ensure strategic development.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heat Exchanger Performance and Stability Improvement Using H2 Synthesis Control Design Technique

Henrietta U. Udeani, Hyacinth C. Inyiama, Kenneth A. Akpado, Chukwudi E. Agbaraji

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 70-80
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i1030323

The heat exchanger is a device that helps to circulate calculated amount of heat in a system. It can be applied in order to reduce the number of heat sources while maintaining a precise level of heat. Heat exchanger is expected to be part of the solution to CO2 emission and climate issues since its application reduces the sources of heat and cost of production such as in electrical power plant. Due to the critical need for the solution to the enormous emission of CO2 and the need to reduce cost of running power plants, the study and improvement of the heat exchanger has become very important.  The heat exchanger suffers from disturbances due to its harsh environment. In order to maintain desired performance the heat exchanger requires an adequate control measure. Many types of controllers have been designed, however from the review it was observed that most of the controllers produced marginal stability which will not maintain good performance of the system in the presence of significant disturbance. The major objectives of this work are to reduce the tracking error for performance improvement, to reduce the peak sensitivity for better disturbance rejection and to improve the stability margins for stability robustness. In this work, an optimal robust control was developed for the heat exchanger using H2 synthesis technique. From the results, the controlled system trajectory tracking error and overshoot were reduced to zero and the peak sensitivity to disturbance was reduced to 0.189 dB. Gain and phase margins satisfied the robust stability characteristics; gain margin was greater than 20 dB and phase margin was greater 60 dB. This means that the designed optimal controller will guarantee robust performance and stability of the system even in the presence of large disturbance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Energetic Balance of Biogas and Fertilizing Potential of Digestate from Anaerobic Digestion of Manihot Utilissima

Beaudrique Mboko Nsimba, Philippe Ngoma Mambanzulua, Norbert Lolofo Basosila, Virginie Alleluya Korangi, Mugunda Saidi, Yamba Esole

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 81-92
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i1030324

Optimal scale production of biogas from the anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic wastes (OWs) as substrates has become one of stimulating environment-friendly procedures to foster the replacement of fossil energies by renewable ones. AD of OWs generated from households is desirable as an effective method to fight against environmental pollution effects of the latter in developing countries. Notably in Africa where each year there are more than 600,000 premature deaths following the use of solid biomass energy (especially charcoal). Yet, if assessing the potential of biogas production, that is, biochemical methane potential (BMP) has played a prominent role in the choice of substrates, in the other hand the evaluation of the optimal ratio between the quantity of variety OWs and the amount of energy to be produced has not received several attentions. The latter is valuable not only for energetic productivity but also for profitability. Thus, in this report, an energetic balance between the amount of leaves and stems of Manihot Utilissima (MU) annually produced as well as the energetic potential of their biogas were investigated. Cow manure (CM) was employed as inoculum, under mesophilic conditions of the collection sites: Ngaba and Ndjili in Kinshasa City Province (KCP), Congo DR, where the leaves and stems of MU are among the most generated wastes. Furthermore, we evaluated the         fertilizing potential of digestates from the AD of the leaves and stems by their Carbon/Nitrogen (C/N) ratios.

The annual energetic potentials of biogas produced were estimated to be 1.362 ± 0.028 109 kWh for the leaves and 0.337 ± 0.006 109 kWh for the stems. These were associated to the energy needs for the KCP households corresponding to the use of charcoal. The latter was evaluated to be 166 103 tons for leaves and 41 103 tons for the stems of MU, respectively.

The fertilizing potential of digestates from the AD of the leaves and stems of MU assessed by their C/N ratios were determined to be 5 and 10, respectively; indicating that they are favorable for the cultivation of vegetables and fruit trees in KCP soils (C/N~5) but also optimal for the organisms, soil conditioning and could improve the soils hydraulic conductivity (C/N~10).

Open Access Original Research Article

Theoretical Analysis of the Bladeless Wind Turbine Performance

A. Anthony Adeyanju, D. Boucher

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 93-106
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i1030325

A bladeless wind turbine utilizes vortex formation to extract energy from the wind. Vortex formation are small swirls of air which occur as a result of the geometric shape of the device. This study designed a bladeless wind turbine which incorporates a structural support at a distance offset from the center axis of the cylindrical mast. Springs were added to the final design as means to provide the stiffness required to obtain resonance with the vortex shedding frequency and to also assist in supporting the structure. The analysis was conducted at wind speeds 1m/s, 4m/s and 7m/s, where the geometrical properties of the device remained constant. MATLAB was used to analyze the equation of motion derived for the device. The variables of interest in the studies were mainly the angular acceleration, power coefficient and the resonant frequency. The results obtained showed that for wind speeds above and below the designed wind speed of 4m/s the angular velocity remained the same. Results of this model showed that high amplitudes occur only at resonance. Results showed that with the current power generating mechanism, the average efficiency attainable is approximately 2% at steady state. This is the theoretical efficiency which could be achieved based on the current model. It was discovered that for linearly tapered cylinders, increased oscillations occurred during the ‘lock-in range’ for a range of reduced velocities. The reduced velocity of the designed wind speed is approximately Vr = 5m/s. This value lies within the theoretical range lock in range where increased oscillations are expected to occur between reduced velocities of 4.75m/s and 8m/s [1].

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Climatic Factors on the Spread of COVID-19 Pandemic: Evidence from Tunisia

Fatma Aribi, Mongi Sghaier

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 107-121
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i1030326

Since the end of December 2019, the COrona VIrus Disease (COVID-19) is sweeping the world and has caused huge damage to the health, economy, and social life of the communities. Meteorological variables are among the factors influencing the spread of contagious diseases. The aim of this study was to explore the correlation between climatic parameters and COVID-19 spread in Tunisia. To do this, we designed a daily dataset including the number of confirmed and deaths cases, minimum temperature (°C), maximum temperature (°C), mean temperature (°C), rainfall (mm), and wind speed (km/h) during the period of June 27 to October 22, 2020. To investigate the association between climatic variables and COVID-19, the Spearman correlation test was employed. The Mann-Kendall test has been also used to detect the direction of the COVID-19 trend. As many researchers have demonstrated that the incubation period of the ongoing pandemic varies from 1 to 14 days, the correlation of each parameter with COVID-19 was examined on the day of the confirmed cases and deaths, and before 7 and 14 days.  The results showed that out of the five selected climatic variables, four variables were correlated with COVID-19 cases and deaths (statistically significant at a 99% confidence level). A positive correlation of the rainfall with COVID-19 confirmed cases and deaths was observed, the highest was 14 days ago. However, negative correlations were observed for minimum, maximum, and mean temperature, the highest was on the day of the incident. Besides, the Mann-Kendall test showed increasing trends for COVID-19 cases and deaths (statistically significant at a 99% confidence level). The results of this study might be useful to understand the role of climatic factors in the spread of COVID-19 and provide insights for healthcare policymakers to well manage this global pandemic.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Comparison Production Growth of Potato Plants (Solanum Tuberesum, L) between Various Dosages of Biochar and Coffee Skin Compost

. Khadijah, . Eliyin, . Mulyono, . Basyirah, . Amiruddin

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 122-129
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i1030327

Potatoes (Solanum tuberesum, L) are one of the main foods for the needs of the world community. Therefore, increasing potato crop production is considered important. For this purpose, the utilization of a mixture of rice husk biochar with compost can provide the best results up to three times the planting season. Coffee skin can also be found in form of compost for the utilization process. However, due to the lack of farmer’s knowledge about the benefits that can be provided by skin compost to maintain the level of soil fertility. This study aims to analys the effect of biochar and coffee skin compost on the growth and yield of potato crops. Plant height, number of shoots, number of tubers per clump, and per plot tuber weight was a parameter of observation. This experiment used a factorial randomized planting block design using several doses of biochar and coffee skin compost.  The treatment of biochar dosage did not significantly affect all parameters observed. The treatment of the effect of doses of coffee skin compost had a very significant effect on plant height at all ages of observation. The average plant height increases with the higher doses of red coffee skin compost given has a very significant effect on the number of tubers per clump and the weight of per plot tubers. There was no real interaction between the biochar dose and the red coffee skin compost dosage against all observed parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Particulate Matter Pollution around a Cement Industry and its Potential Effect

Victor Emeka Amah, Ngozi Udeh, Bassey Otuekong Effiong

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 130-140
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i1030328

Analysis of particulate matter (PM) PM2.5 and PM10 was done around a cement company in Rivers State, Nigeria. Measurements were taken for the concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 and other atmospheric parameters at intervals of 100 m up to 1000 m and field observation was carried out for two days. The temperature of the area varied between 26.6 degrees and 33.3 degrees, relative humidity was between 70.2 and 98.2% and the wind speed ranged from 0.2 to 3.6 m/s. The minimum PM10 and PM2.5 values were 38 and 18 µg/m3 respectively and the maximum PM10 and PM2.5 values were 616 and 298 µg/m3 respectively. A two way analysis of variance was done at 5 % level of significance to determine the influence the time the measurement was taken and the distance from the stack have on the particulate matter concentration. P values were lower than P = .05 therefore, the null hypothesis was rejected. The pollution index for PM10 was determined and about 86% of the pollution index are above 100, 80% are above 150 and about 21% is above 400. About 96% of the pollution index for PM2.5 is above 100, 87% are above 150 and about 21% are above 300. As shown on Air quality index charts, values between 100 and 150 are unhealthy for sensitive groups, values above 150 are unhealthy, and values above 300 are hazardous while values above 400 are very hazardous. It is concluded that the ground level concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 up to 1200 m from the stack is generally unhealthy for the receptors.

Open Access Review Article

Genetically Modified Crops and Food Security in Nigeria; Facts and Myths

B. O. Ehirim, M. Bashir, M. N. Ishaq, A. S. Gana, B. Z. Salihu, T. Gbadeyan, O. F. Nwankwo, E. Kouko, K. D. Tolorunse, J. Amedu, S. U. Echefu, N. Danbaba

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 54-63
DOI: 10.9734/jsrr/2020/v26i1030321

Biotechnology per se is not a panacea for the world’s problems of hunger and poverty. However, genetic engineering in particular offers outstanding potentials to increase the efficiency of crop improvement. Thus, biotechnology could enhance global food production and availability in a sustainable way. Studies have shown that transgenic crops are very appropriate for agricultural producers and consumers in developing countries as the entire technology can be packaged into the seed. It can easily be integrated into traditional smallholder farming systems through proper stewardship. Except for a few innovative transfer projects, the application of biotechnology until now remains concentrated in the industrialized world. However due to insufficient owned scientific and regulatory capacities, the increase in privatized international agricultural research and the strengthening of intellectual property rights of these organizations complicate the access of developing countries to biotechnology. Therefore, profound government and Institutional adjustments that cuts across new technologies and regulations are essential to ensuring that biotechnology does not bypass the resource poor, smallholder farmers in Africa and Nigeria in particular.